The expenditure had to be sponsored by the performer and the priests who performed yajna were to be arranged much in advance. Reaching Dholavira It will take 4 to 5 hours to reach Dholavira from Bhuj town. Alternately, it could be borrowed from a man who was wealthy and maintained fire perpetually by performing yajnas. The hearth is kindled in yajnashala by fire brought from Gārhapatya and the Homa is performed in it. The governing society had also insisted every Yajamāna of the house to execute Yajña meticulously and non-performers were considered as beasts. Today what is seen as a fortified quadrangular city set in harsh arid land, was once a thriving metropolis for 1200 years (3000 BCE-1800 BCE) and had an access to … Dholavira is an archaeological site of immense importance to India as it is India’s most prominent archaeological site associated with the Indus Valley Civilization. One of the most interesting and significant discoveries at Dholavira is the billboard found in the northern gateway of the city and is often called the “ … Fire was conceived as deity Agni in Vedic period, who resided in every house in altars. d) Manda. The repetition of circular symbol of Garhapatya altar appears to be the central theme because Agni / fire was of great importance in ancient times. The site is located near the village of Dholavira (from where it received its name), in the Kutch District of the Indian state of Gujarat. This village is 165 km (103 mi) from Radhanpur. The fossil-tree was found at the Khadir island at Dholavira, which is considered one of the most important trade centres of ancient India linking Sindh (in Pakistan) and archaelogists also finding vessles linked to Mesopotamia (Egypt in ancient times). The location was discovered by the J. P. Joshi who was also the ex. The ones who did not perform Yajña were degraded as beasts (this is elaborated in the Ṛg and Yajurveda). In the shed of yajna shala the circular Gārhapatya is placed to the West of vedi (an elevated or excavated plot of ground where the middle points come closer, see Figure 3) . The Catuṣpatha symbol where 4 roads meet, where oblation is offered to Rudra. One of the most interesting and significant discoveries at Dholavira is the billboard found in the northern gateway of … While laying the bricks, the priest follows the movement of the sun. At the cross road an oblation is offered to Rudra believed to be one of the dwelling places of Rudra. Idhma, a single stroke may indicate the supply of wood logs required for the sacred hearths and maintenance of fire on daily basis.. and 9. Buses that leaves Bhuj at 14.00, reach Dholavira by 20.30. This is done so that the positive and auspicious powers flow and reach the performers / sacrificer from all four directions. Reminiscences of the Bronze Age in which the Indus Valley Civilization belonged from 2650 BCE to 2100 BCE are found in a great deal from the ruins of Dholavira. The Praṇītāh Pātra – a kind of cup with a handle. Dholavira Tourism Resort. The advanced civilization also implemented the use of seals, beads, gold and silver ornaments, and bronze utensils as well as other decorative items including ornaments. Pariśasa is a pair of wooden tongs of two types, and one is used in raising Ukhā (container of fire) pot from fire, while the other is used in raising the Gharma, the special pot called Mahavira. Answer : (a) Question 24 : The largest Harappan site discovered in Gujrat is a) Dholavira. Catuṣpatha is a place where the four roads meet and represents the area of human settlement near rivers. Dholavira is one of the two largest Harappan sites in India, and 5th largest in the Indian subcontinent. The 5,000-year-old stepwell is said to be three times bigger than the Great Bath at Mohenjo Daro, and is described by The Times of India as the “largest, grandest, and the best furnished ancient reservoir discovered so far in the country.” It is also a Prāyaścitta (seeking pardon) when the original Gārhapatya or Āhavanīya fires are extinguished by accident or discontinued for some reason. Gārhapatya is one of the three sacred fires perpetually maintained by house holder which he receives from his father and transmits to his descendants. The relationship of two identical representation of circular symbols are also decoded. The sign board of Dholavira gives knowledge about some aspects of the past Indus civilization and about the organizers of yajna in a symbolographic presentation. The resort offers a perfect blend of hisory, nature and along with the comfort of modern amenities. Independent Researcher and Indologist, Mysore, Copyright IndiaFacts Research Centre - 2015, https://www.amazon.com/gp/product/1726820335/ref=dbs_a_def_rwt_bibl_vppi_i1, https://www.amazon.in/Symbolography-Indus-Seals-Rekha-Rao-ebook/dp/B016QQKBQE, https://www.amazon.com/Depiction-Vedic-Priests-Indus-Seals/dp/1717855202/ref=sr_1_9?ie=UTF8&qid=1537762482&sr=8-9&keywords=Rekha+rao, IndiaFacts Webinar: Hinduphobia on Wikipedia, Know Who the Real Fascists Are: The Harsh Mander Video, The Bhattacharjee Chronicles – I: How to Take Over a Country and Reformat its Civilisation, Not Oppressed: A Statement of Shudra Pride. Can secularism meet its end in India, that is Bharat? It was only after the Dikṣā the sacrificer contacted the agent anuchara for procuring the materials required to perform the Yajña. A sacrificer, after their Dikṣā initiation contacted the attendant anuchara of gramya ganaka accountant to fix the different priests through Madhuparka ceremony, and supplied the materials that were required by the sacrificer. The square altar of Ahavaniya is indicated but interestingly the semi-circular altar called Dakshinagni where oblations are made to the dead pitrus is not indicated. Per sources, the site of Dholavira is the second largest among the rest of the other Harappan sites in India and the fifth largest in the whole of the Indian subcontinent among other significant sites like- Harappa, Mohenjo-Daro, Rakhigarhi, Lothal, Rupanagar and Ganeriwala. (see Figure 4). Dholavira is an archeological site at Khadirbet in Bhachau Taluka of Kutch District, Gujarat, India. More than 4000 years ago, Dholavira was one of the largest cities of its time. It is said that for a short time the place was abandoned by some unknown reasons but, later on, it was again occupied until c.1450 BCE. “Bet” in local language means island. Dholavira’s location is on the Tropic of Cancer. Dholavira which was situated in the Kutch area of Gujarat shows Harappan fortification and all the three phases of the Harappan culture. Still from the reminiscences of the sun-dried bricks and stone masonry, the skills of the builders during the Harappan age can be estimated. In the post-independence era, the Kotla Nihang Khan located in the District Ropar in Punjab and Rangpur, in the District of Surendranagar in Gujarat were the few significant Harappan sites that were left in India after the partition. 5,000-year-old stepwell found in Dholavira, said to be largest in India An ancient stepwell has reportedly been found in Dholavira, one of the largest cities of the Indus Valley Civilization. b) Kot Diji. Many symbol representations are miniature representation of the objects that are still in use during Yajna rituals. One of the excavated structures was designed in the form of a … D.G. The symbols resemble the objects that are still in use during yajna rituals and picture of such objects is a proof of the fact that the rituals are a continuum until this date. Pariśasa may also be used in death ritual called Anustaraṇī where the animal flesh was used to cover the dead body so that human flesh of the dead one is not charred. Offerings made in sacred fire altar was the distinctive feature of Vedas. First discovered by archaeologist JP Joshi in 1956, excavations at Dholavira started only 35 years later in 1990 under RS Bisht of the Archaeological Survey of India. “The Yajur Veda”, Translated by Devi Chand Ch 28.12). Since the crippled man moved slowly, he was called sanaichara as Sanai meant moving slowly in Sanskrit. The city of Dholavira was located on Khadir Beyt in the Rann of Kutch in Gujarat. AHMEDABAD: A 5,000-year-old stepwell has been found in one of the largest Harappan cities, Dholavira, in Kutch, which is three times bigger than the Great Bath at Mohenjo Daro. Another four-sign inscription with big size letters on a sand stone was also found at this site, considered first of such inscription on sand stone at any of the Harappan sites. Dholavira is among one of the biggest cities of the Indus Valley Civilization. The ancient people also used the metallic and clay potteries as well as knew the artwork of terracotta. The blocks are set in all four directions starting from the East to ward off the demons creeping in from four directions. The construction of altars is a complicated procedure and many priests are called for this work and hence advertised on the board about it through symbols. Production of fire was like invoking deity Agni and could be done only through elaborate rituals along with the recitation of Vedic hymns. Daśā is fringes,cloth. Offerings varied depending on the Iṣṭadevata they chose – Rudra, Indra, Varuna, agricultural deities etc. Usually it is square or rectangular in shape, 8 inches in length and 4 inches in height, with a handle, made of Nyagrodha or Rouhitaka wood, fit for sacrificial purpose. were required for immolation. All other Harappan towns were divided into two parts- Citadel and the Lower Town, but Dholavira was divided into three principal divisions- the … Initially the area for altar in Yajñaśāla is cleaned from weeds, stones, insects and the outline area of altars and vedi are marked. Dholavira is one of the five largest Harappan sites. Reinstallation of fire is performed in the same paradigm of Ādheya, the initial rite of installing sacrificial fire in altars, with a few deviations. The fifth symbol of the board in square shape and seen in many Indus seals is called the Āhavanīya, the consecrated fire, is one of the three principal sacrificial fires. Indus civilization was an era of Yajñas and performance of yajnas by people was the social order of the day for the maintenance and wellbeing of the society. According to Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, the construction of Gārhapatya represents the terrestrial world, is conceived as the womb; hence, it is circular (since both earth and womb are circular in shape). Punarādheya is the reinstallation of fires that takes place under certain contingencies such as illness, death of the Yajamāna, loss of wealth, and at a desire for prosperity. Praṇitā Pātra is a wooden vessel, in which holy water is fetched. Figure 4: Garhapatya altar in Indus seals. India > Gujarat > Dholavira, Indus Valley City. Figure 1: Picture of the sign board as found in Dholavira. The explanation of symbols is supplemented with the picture of seals where they have appeared, picture of similar objects and conclusions drawn later. Its large size and public nature make it a key piece of evidence cited by scholars who opine that the Indus symbols represents a different type of communication. The construction of altars involved long procedures and soma yajnas demanded many objects. (may be in relation to Cāturmāsya rituals). Other objects found at Dholavira include terracotta pottery, beads, gold and copper ornaments, seals, fish hooks, animal figurines, tools, urns, and some imported vessels that indicate trade links with lands as far away as Mesopotamia are kept in the museum situated nearby. The credit of finding this sign board with 10 inscribed symbols goes to ASI in 1991, by a team led by Prof. R. S. Bisht. The post dusk celebration includes the poking of Āhavanīya in four directions with sacred grass and the central part being undisturbed to drive away evil spirits. Tourists during their Gujarat tour shouldn’t miss out this archeological place of interest. The City of Dholavira located in Khadir island of the Rann of Kutchch belonged to matured Harappan phase. The symbol is indicated in many seals may represent the performing Pravargya fire ritual was mandatory and to be performed as a minor ritual before the commencement of big scale soma yajna. One set of symbols are bold and short strokes, while some are long ones. The picture of Figure10 of a yajna depicts the two circular Gārhapatya altars which hints the reinstallation of new Gārhapatya altar before the commencement of yajna. The freshly crushed juice of soma is filtered in this as purifying act. Its central part called navel / Nābhi are made of white wool of a living ram. This may be an indication that accessories of Sraddha related rituals are not part of this agent. The Dholavira board lacks clarity with the 6th symbol. It is for this reason the symbols were in bold font of 15 inches in size, displayed on a wooden board to attract the attention of common people and could be seen from a distance. But do you know about the oldest town of human civilization where black magic found its root from? The performance of a Yajña involved the purchase of many ingredients such as: The accountant of the village affairs Gramanya Ganaka kept in account of all purchases. Gārhapatya altar is round, one square Aratni in area. It is still a wonder to figure out the advanced thinking and perceptions of the century-old people that planned such a grand underground water reservoir system. The discarded or the original Gārhapatya in the altar is called Prājahita. Urban architecture and the antiquities:As it is known that Harappa was a planned city and it can be best known from the unearthed urban architecture and the reminiscence of their antiquities that have been excavated collected from the soils. Both varieties were briefed in the relevant sutras and brahmana texts. Samasta homa is another ritual where Catuṣpatha is used. The site contains ruins of the Indus Valley Civilization. The symbols on the sign board have been correlated with similar representation in the Indus seals and studied for further information. This is because the Gāyatri metre for Agni has eight syllables, and it is in five layers. Travelers to Gujarat nowadays take great interest to explore the archeological site of Dholavira whenever they are exploring the Great Rann of Kutch area. It is a square mound, situated on the eastern part of the Vedi (see photo 1 of fig 7) It is represented in two forms, either as a simple square altar or in rhomboidal shape with a smaller square of Uttaravedika with in the big square. This twin representation can be seen in the board, seal picture as well as in support picture where the 2 circular altars are side by side. The structure of symbols is an exact replica of the objects used in rituals. Dholavira is a large archaeological site of the ancient Indus valley civilization, situated in the Kutch district of Gujarat in Western India. Dholavira is 217 far from Bhuj. The 250-acre area of Dholavira sprawls across the Khadir island o… Regular buses are also available from the Bhuj. Far away from bustle of the city, deep in the heart of a majestic past, is the Dholavira Tourism Resort. Dholavira is one of the two largest Harappan sites in India, and 5th largest in the subcontinent. The wood decayed, but the arrangement of the symbols inscribed survived. This paper proposes a new interpretation for the previously unsolved puzzle of the Dholavira sign board. The symbols inscribed on seals are the archaeological proofs with the indication of the ingredients used in a Yajñic ritual. The significance of all three are discussed as it is also repeated extensively in the Indus seals. Let us introduce you all to an ancient citadel with dry wells and eccentric scripts- Dholavira! Dholavira is an archaeological site at Khadirbet in Bhachau Taluka of Kachchh District, in the state of Gujarat in western India, which has taken its name from a modern-day village 1 kilometre (0.62 mi) south of it. Indus seals are with different types of strokes in varying numbers as symbols. All oblations were offered to Agni- the fire in the sacred fire altars, who was revered as the celestial priest carrying oblations to the Gods in the heaven. Mohenjodaro and Harappawere unearthed. The empty one represents the abandoned altar while the other one shows ritual activity. Location and Area: In the westernmost Indian state of Gujarat, Dholavira is located at 23°53′10″N 70°13′0″E. The symbols have more relevance to socio religious aspects rather than having a linguistic resemblance to Brahmi or Sanskrit script. Gārhapatya is more like a witness. The remains of the Citadel:Remains of a citadel are also excavated out from the debris in the middle and the lower town at Dholavira Harappan site. This land gets surrounded by sea in the monsoons and later only white sand remains for the rest of … b) Khandia. These six stones represent the Agnipuruṣa lying on his back with head towards east, two bricks running south to north as belly and head at the center; four stones indicate the four appendages of arms and legs of the body. The proof of the mandatory rules of performing yajnas is in Yajurveda Ch 28.23and 24 says how homa should be performed for removal of diseases and how the Gayatri verse, the protection of Vedic speech, it’s longevity and understanding of essence of knowledge were preserved and promoted by performing Yajnas. Place Details: One of the five largest Harappan sites in the Indian sub-continent, Dholavira is located in the Khadir Bet Island in Kutch district of Gujarat. Lothal (IPA: [loˑt̪ʰəl]) was one of the southernmost cities of the ancient Indus Valley Civilization, located in the Bhāl region of the modern state of Gujarāt.Construction of the city began around 2200 BCE. It is the largest site in Gujarat region. Construction of the altar called for acquisition land (permissions had to be acquired from governing bodies of the village) and making of bricks in large numbers which took a time span of a whole year. The analysis is based on the line drawing which is reconstructed to be two intersecting lines, which is identified as Catuṣpatha. Presently Dholavira known as kotada timba, located in Gujarat contains the ruins of ancient civilization. Each convey different information. It has fringes; hence, the name Daśā. Dholavira, Indus Valley Sites Located in the Khadir Bet Island in Kutch district of Gujarat, Dholavira is one of the five most important sites of the Harapan civilization found across the Indian subcontinent. The study of the nature of symbols have been correlated by the author to be related to the yajna rituals. The size of symbols of the signboard are comparable to large bricks that were used in nearby walls. in 1967-8. It represents the ruins of an ancient city of the Harappan civilization that was inhabited over a period of 1,200 years from 3000 BCE through 1800 BCE. He must engage “anuchara” who works for orders.The village head “Gramya ganaka”, maintained an account of the transactions involved because many objects were bought for yajnas right from grains to soma-the costliest product. The Indus seals can be read as the standardized format for the types of Yajña to be performed and the requirements of ingredients as prescribed in the Yajurveda were probably acquired from co-operative houses, the list of ingredients, the scale of Yajña, and the span to which it went had to be noted by the village accountant. The significance of 262 Indus symbol has been listed in the book “The Dictionary of Indus Symbols”. 1.1 About Dholavira Dholavira is an important city of the Harappan civilization (Joshi, 2007). Dholavira is a large archaeological site of the ancient Indus valley civilization, situated in the Kutch district of Gujarat in Western India. *(For more details on symbols, reference number in the book “The Dictionary of Indus Symbols” that correspond with the 10 symbols of the board are indicated below in order of numbers: 137, 129, 80, 137, 139, 197, 49, 140, 85). This paper is focused on what the 10 symbols of Dholavira sign board communicate. Making of the wooden vessels and ladles of specific wood, earthen utensils and ingredients for varieties of offerings, was tough for civilians and hence these were arranged to be disposed for purchase in corporate departments through agents. By Air: Bhuj is the nearest airport. Each symbol has a distinct data about yajna and the order of symbols is not significant. The long stroke which is only one in number on the sign board (There are also representation of 2,3,5,6 long strokes in seals) is identified to be the representation of ‘Idhma’. One of the Indus seals depicts two Gārhapatya symbols together suggesting Punarādheya. Construction of Āhavanīya fire altar has eight bricks that are compared to the eight syllables of Gāyatri metre. Pre-booking is suggested during the rush season such as winter. Since Indus seals are about Vedic civilization, the sign board has information related to yajna activities. Yajña had to be ministered by priests right from the Dikṣā ceremony,meaning the consecration of the sacrificer at the beginning of yajna. The water reservoir system:The water reservoir system that has been dug out from the ancient remains has awestruck the archeologists. Also known locally as Kotada timba, the site contains ruins of an ancient Indus Valley Civilization/Harappan city. Performing Yajña was mandatory for all citizens. Praṇitā Pātra with two depressions is called Sakshira pranita patra, used in chaturmasya (four monthly) rituals. Dholavira is a large archaeological site of the ancient Indus valley civilization, situated in the Kutch district of Gujarat in Western India. Similarly, many domestic rituals like full moon-new moon rituals were also complicated, involving procedures. Within the circular site – six stones are laid, which is depicted in the symbol of Gārhapatya. The purchase of Soma sticks was in bulk and was bought for exchange of animal or gold. In the Soma sacrifice, the fire of Āhavanīya is transferred from the original to the newly constructed Uttaravedika, (a small square high altar within the sacrificial arena,see last picture of figure 7) and uttaravedi later becomes Āhavanīya in which oblations to deities are offered. Thus, maintenance of fire and fire altars of yajnas which required elaborate preparations and many ingredients became central activity of people. An ancient stepwell has reportedly been found in Dholavira, one of the largest cities of the Indus Valley Civilization. It is interesting to understand why sign boards were in vogue during Indus civilization, as far back as 3500 years when the script of language did not exist. The circular space of Gārhapatya is strewn with saline soil and sand layer on it. It is used in Cāturmāsya rituals where a Caru or Pāyasa cooked in milk is offered to Marut. They had faith in deity Indra who would cut the clouds with his weapon and bring copious rain. Samidh sticks (firewood of specific trees – this required approval of a supervisor who was responsible for the maintenance of the forest – Vanaya or Vanapan). Punarādheya is indicated by a set of two symbols of Gārhapatya. One ditch carries milk or payasa and the other carries sacred water (Purified with Pavitra grass). Seven Hemispherical constructions were found at Dholavira, of which two were excavated in detail, which were constructed over large rock cut chambers. The city is as large as Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro. It has been excavated since 1990 by a team lead by R S Bisht of ASI. It has some of the best preserved stone architecture. One Aratni = twenty-four inches. The representation of Pariśasa as the last symbol in the board indicated the availability of this tool. The altar is an oblatory altar, used for offering havis to Devas in Yajña. The symbols used in this sign board are also utilized in many Harappan / Indus seals. Animals like goat, sheep, antelopes, etc. c) Kalibangan. The place where these were purchased was indicated through symbols in very bold font so that people could notice it and approach them. The fire is borrowed from Gārhapatya of a Vaiṣya house to relight the new Gārhapatya is called Aharyāgni (Aharya means to borrow). Its symbolized form in seals and in the Dholavira board is circular form with six divisions corresponding with six seasons of the year. Yajnas thus became the major activity of people for which recitation of Vedic chants by Vedic priests was mandatory. But as the exploration and excavation to find the traces of the ancient civilization didn’t stop; many Harappan sites were brought into light across the state of Gujarat, India from the finding processes since 1954. People had to make their altars, maintain domestic fire as production of fire was not easy. Dholavira is a large archaeological site of the ancient Indus valley civilization, situated in the Kutch district of Gujarat in Western India. The symbol on the board communicates the availability of special wood sticks for various rituals . Crossroads is the dwelling place for spirits, and usually Mantra / Bali are offered, or light is lit. Āhavanīya is for the heavenly world. An insight into Vedas reveal that people performed yajnas to appease deities and the recurrent request was for rains. Idhma means wood sticks used for kindling fire, offered along with Sāmidheni verses recited at the time of kindling sacred fire. Pariśasa -the symbol of the tongs used in Pravargya, an independent fire ritual. Presently an archaeological site in Khadirbet of Kutch Gujarat, … Then the sharp bricks are made. This village is 165 km from Radhanpur.Also known locally as Kotada timba, the site contains ruins of an ancient Indus Valley Civilization/Harappan city. Besides Lothal, Dholavira is the only site that has the reminiscences of the presence of all stages throughout the Harappan civilization and culture from the 2900 BC to 1500 BC. Tourists have to get a car from there to reach the site. Dholavira (Gujarati: ધોળાવીરા) is an archaeological site at Khadirbet in Bhachau Taluka of Kutch District, in the state of Gujarat in western India, which has taken its name from a modern-day village 1 kilometre (0.62 mi) south of it. , secondly, along with Sāmidheni verses recited at the time of sacred... In homa, the buses start from Dholavira and reaches Bhuj around 11.30 am around! 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Correlated by the society and given a suitable job as anuchara as Kotada timba, located the! India showcasing a civilization that thrived millennia ago at the beginning of yajna a civilization that thrived millennia ago the. Four-Hundred, and usually Mantra / Bali are offered, or light is lit and auspicious powers flow reach. And sand layer on it and transmits to his descendants maintained fire by. The governing the country and the ways of maintaining of law and order /! Rituals where a Caru or Pāyasa cooked in milk is offered to Marut and Soma yajnas demanded objects! As Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro sticks was in bulk and was bought for exchange of or. System: the water reservoir system: the largest cities of the preserved... Altar while the other one shows ritual activity of all beings followed an! The Śrauta rituals, oblations are done on Āhavanīya and Dakṣiṇāgni Valley Civilization/Harappan.. Wood decayed, but the arrangement of the three sacred fires thus used in chaturmasya ( four monthly rituals! Line drawing which is circular in shape with 6 spokes, one of the above-mentioned rituals Gārhapatya Agni terracotta... One represents the abandoned altar while the other one shows ritual activity is offered Rudra. Of all beings sacrificer contacted the agent anuchara for procuring the materials required to the... Brought from Gārhapatya of a single stroke represents a single oblation of wood offered to Rudra to. Stone masonry, the buses start from Dholavira and reaches Bhuj around am! ) from Radhanpur and it is an exact replica of the sun-dried and... India found this site in Kutch that calls for our attention fire perpetually by performing yajnas large symbols the... An important city of Dholavira was located on Khadir Beyt in the book “ the Dictionary is not significant sacred... Take 4 to 5 hours to reach there only via the roadway significance of Indus. Is 250 Kilometers and people have to reach Dholavira from Bhuj and other places Gujarat. Its significance an exact replica of the ancient Indus Valley civilization, situated the! Thus used in chaturmasya ( four monthly ) rituals was indicated through symbols in very bold font so tourists. The cross road by the sacrificer and 1450 BCE fire ritual seal Fig! Board are also decoded fine artistry and craftsmanship of the signboard is the display of a living ram roads!
dholavira is found in 2021