In terms of organic compounds, heteroatoms are any atoms that are not carbon or hydrogen. In chemical terms; expression of the proportional relationship between response and concentration over a defined range. Period – A horizontal row of elements in the periodic table; for example, sodium, magnesium, aluminum, silicon, phosphorus, sulfur, chlorine, and argon make up period 3 of the periodic table. 2500 pages of free content are available only online. A compound is said to be lipophilic if it has high solubility in fat. A-Z Chemistry definitions for use with A-Level Chemistry Our database of chemistry definitions provides key information and a summary of many chemistry terms, covering them in enough detail to help you fully understand the terms in preparation for your A-Level Chemistry exams. In medicinal chemistry, hard drugs refer to compounds that are generally nonmetabolisable. In simple terms, it is the study of what the drug does to the body. Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships (QSAR). Chemistry definition is - a science that deals with the composition, structure, and properties of substances and with the transformations that they undergo. Below, you will find the neurotransmitter serotonin – try to identify all the structural features of this molecule. One purpose is to enhance drug site-specificity. Refers to a molecule’s tendency associate with another. That’s about it for our medicinal chemistry glossary. Browse and search thousands of Chemistry Abbreviations and acronyms in our comprehensive reference resource. A List of Basic Chemistry Apparatus. A unit of measurement for temperature. An analytical technique that takes advantage of the magnetic properties of certain nuclei. Interactions that occur within a molecule. The number of ligand donor atoms to which the metal is directly bound is the coordination number (CN) of the metal ion in the complex. In analytical chemistry, quantitative analysis is the determination of the presence or absence of a substance in a sample. chlorine - halogen with atomic number 17 and element symbol Cl. Intermolecular interactions between a charged species and a dipole. In chemical synthesis, yield refers to the amount of product obtained at the end of a chemical reaction. Kinetics: It is the branch of chemistry that investigates the rates of chemical reactions. Particles with sizes ranging from 1 – 100 nanometres. A region within the binding site that can interact with drugs through intramolecular interactions. 21. A chemical entity that contains both anionic and cationic groups. carboxylic acid - A carboxylic acid is an organic molecule containing a -COOH group. Medicinal compounds that contain a radioactive nuclide. Chemical symbol – A short form used to represent the name of an element; C is the chemical symbol for carbon. We know that the carbon needs to have four bonds, so the oxygen is also connected to the carbon. Learn with flashcards, games, and more — for free. 5. A set of rules that are obeyed by many orally active drugs. Large collections of synthesised compounds generated through combinatorial chemistry. From the textbook Physical Science, (Glencoe Science made) Chapters 15-21 excluding 18. Refers to weak intermolecular interactions between transient dipoles usually in hydrophobic regions of molecules. 19. Nucleus – In chemistry, the charged center of an atom; contains the atoms protons and neutrons. A branch of chemistry that incorporates aspects of organic chemistry, physical chemistry, computational chemistry, analytical chemistry, pharmacology, and the biological sciences to design, develop, and synthesise drugs. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The use of simpler analogues eases synthesis. In terms of pharmacology, drug half-life refers to the time taken for a drug’s plasma concentration to fall by half. 18. In QSAR, Hansch analysis expresses biological activity using electronic, hydrophobic, and steric parameters. 22. 25. In molecular modelling, energy minimisations refer to operations carried out to detect a stable conformation for a molecule. An analytical, separatory technique based on the differing affinities of the constituents of the mixture for the stationary phase. A scientific tool used to determine the 3D arrangement of atoms in a crystal using the X-rays. Comparative Molecular Field Analysis (CoMFA). Abbreviation for Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Excretion.Sometimes referred to as ADMET or ADME-Tox to account for toxicity. Usually in chemistry the term is used to describe a pair of molecules that have the same formulas, but form a pair of structures. The first half of this extensive medicinal chemistry glossary will focus on some of the most important nomenclature that one comes across when studying medicinal chemistry. A lot of the structural features shown below are common to small organic drug molecules. Likewise, the CN of Fe and Co in the complex ions [Fe(C2O4)3]3… Regions in a drug target where an endogenous ligand or drug can bind. Short for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, an immunochemical test often employed in the biochemical sciences. An example of a buffer is acetic acid and sodium acetate. Pharmacokinetics involves the study of a compound’s ADME properties. Key Concepts: Terms in this set (209) Accurate. How to use chemistry in a sentence. Structural Formula: When the structure of the molecule of a compound is represented in the graphical form, it is called a structural formula. Conductivity – Describes how easily a substance lets heat or electricity move through it. Severe allergic reaction that can cause intensely itchy welts (hives) on the skin, low blood pressure, and difficulty breathing. 3. Chemical reaction – Any change that occurs when substances interact to produce new substances with new properties; changes in the chemical and physical properties of the pure substances let you know that a chemical reaction has occurred; when vinegar and baking soda are combined, they react to produce frothy bubbles. Chemical modifications done by an organism on chemical compounds. chlorofluorocarbon - A chlorofluorocarbon or CFC is a compound that contains atoms of chlorine, fluorine, and carbon. A sour substance which can attack metal, clothing or skin. Drugs that are structurally related to existing drugs. Bioisosteres are chemical groups with similar physicochemical properties which give broadly similar biological properties to a compound. NIST and the Nobel: Dan Shechtman. It consists of a nucleus which is surrounded by a cloud of electrons. 12. Refers to experiments and/or studies performed with live animals or humans. 13. A charge or a dipole can induce a dipole in another molecule. Atomic number – The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom; for example, the atomic number for helium is 2. Jonny-Ringo, first and foremost, loves to read and write. Cite this article as: William Anderson (Schoolworkhelper Editorial Team), "General Chemistry: Key Terms & Definitions," in. In lay terms, often referred to as a "test." Prodrugs which contain the active compound linked to a removable carrier group. 28. Note the existence of partial agonists, inverse agonists, and superagonists. The active principle is the compound(s) in the mixture that is responsible for that mixture’s biological activity. A mixture is said to be racemic if the mixture contains equivalent amounts of the left and right-handed enantiomers of a molecule that is chiral. Methanol is made up of 1 carbon, 4 hydrogens, and 1 oxygen. A prodrug that consists of two generally synergistic drugs attached to each other. A form of liquid chromatography used in analytical chemistry used to separate, identify, and quantify the components of a mixture. Chemistry. 17. A chemical is any combination of elements. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (NMR). The structure of the anti-cancer compound, paclitaxel (Taxol) is shown below. In molecular modelling, docking refers to the process by which molecules fit into a binding site. Some Groups Containing the Carbonyl Functional Group. The chemical … All the glossary key terms from the AQA Chemistry text book. 14. An absorption spectroscopy technique that uses the ultraviolet-visible regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Base - A base is a substance with a pH higher than seven. Covering structural features such as functional groups, cyclic aliphatic compounds, and heterocycles found in organic compounds that are used as drugs – this medicinal chemistry glossary is the complete resource for your studies. Large biological molecules (mostly proteins) that act as catalysts for a reaction. In the simplest sense, drug targets are macromolecular biomolecules such as proteins whose activity can be altered by a pharmacologically active compound. Aqueous solution - Any solution where water is the solvent. 15. Atom – the smallest unit of an element that displays the same properties as the element, for example, hydrogen. Atom - The atom is a basic unit of matter and the smallest unit of an element. Refers to experiments and/or studies performed with a computer. Medicinal Chemistry Glossary. Refers to molecules or groups that are polar and are capable of forming strong hydrogen bonds with water. See more. Topics: Chemistry, Mass spectrometry, Electron Pages: 204 (19197 words) Published: August 31, 2013. Prodrugs that are activated by oxidation or reduction processes rather than simple hydrolysis. An online dictionary of AP Chemistry terms that you will need to know for the AP Chemistry Exam. Mixture – matter than can be separated into parts using differences in physical properties; saltwater is a mixture of salt and water. Glossary Of Chemistry from skool.ie. This is the chemical formula for methanol: Since three of the hydrogens are connected to carbon, they follow carbon in the formula. An enantiomer is either of a pair of molecules that are non-superposable mirror images of each other. Comprises of techniques used to investigate molecular structures and their properties using computational chemistry. The process by which solvent molecules disassociate from a species in solution. Experimental determination of heat changes arising from chemical or physical change. Combinatorial chemistry comprises of methods used to generate libraries of compounds with sizes ranging from hundreds to millions, in a single process. Stoichiometry: The branch of chemistry that deals with the measurement of the quantities of reactants and products of a chemical reaction is called stoichiometry. 7. A compound that is structurally related to another. Short for International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry. Let us do your homework! Pure substance – A substance made up of only one kind of matter; for instance, copper, distilled water and aluminum are all pure substances. The use of molecular modelling software packages to design new drugs or lead compounds for binding sites. The process of discovering and identifying chemical entities that could serve as a starting point for the development of a clinically useful drug. In drug design, steric shields are bulky groups added to metabolically vulnerable parts of the drug in order to slow down metabolism. Science, English, History, Civics, Art, Business, Law, Geography, all free! Author: Jonny-Ringo. Matter – Anything that has mass and occupies space (volume). The chemical opposite of an alkali. A lipid is a water insoluble substance and is the name of a large class of structurally and functionally diverse molecules. Overview. Neutron – Located in the nucleus of an atom, has no charge. Often refers to attractive interactions between oppositely charged ions. Refers to non-polar molecules that have little affinity for water. A common technique used in analytical chemistry that involves vapourisation, separation, and analysis of volatile compounds. Chemical formula – A short form used to represent a molecule; uses letters and numbers; only pure substances have chemical formulas; H2O is the chemical formula for water. Students of all study levels use our site to find solutions and help for their problems, questions and projects. Inactive derivatives of active drug molecules that are converted to parent drug molecules in the body. students – all of whom vouch for the high-quality learning materials. A derived unit of energy, work, or amount of heat in the International System of Units. Since 2012, PharmaFactz has through our membership helped tens of thousands of Lustre – The ability to reflect light, or shine; silver has a high lustre and is so popular for jewellery; sodium metal is also lustrous. The functional group that contains the electron-rich heteroatom and is the recipient of the hydrogen bond. In addition, you should practice using and identifying many of these structures, particularly when it comes to real drug examples. Physical property – The way matter looks, feels, smells or tastes; one physical property of gold is its lustre. For finals. Comprises of methods of delivering pharmaceutical agents at higher concentrations to the desired part of the body. In most labs, you'll encounter the same basic apparatus. If you would like to explore related articles in this area, check out the following link for more. Your online site for school work help and homework help. The functional group that contains the electron-deficient hydrogen covalently bonded to an electronegative atom. Free proofreading and copy-editing included. Precipitation – A solid substance that can form when certain dissolved substances are mixed together. 11. Drug design technique used to restrict free rotation about rotatable bonds. 24. Potato, Periodic Table Families: Properties & Uses, Quote Analysis: The unexamined life is not worth living, My Brother Sam is Dead: Summary, Setting, Characters, Parable of the Lost Coin: Gospel of Luke Analysis & Explanation, Power, Control and Loss of Individuality in George Orwell’s 1984, Augustus’ Role in Shaping the Roman Empire. Nucleus – In chemistry, the charged center of an atom; contains the atoms protons and neutrons. In chemistry, often refers to situations where a molecule adheres to a surface. •absolute temperature: This is a temperature reading made relative to absolute zero. Professional writers in all subject areas are available and will meet your assignment deadline. The latter half of the medicinal chemistry glossary focuses on structural aspects of organic chemistry; a convenient revision resource for those studying sciences with a significant chemistry component. We use the unit of Kelvins for these readings. Basic Chemistry Vocabulary List. Note that R groups are often used as a generic placeholder for alkyl or sometimes aryl groups. ATTENTION: Please help us feed and educate children by uploading your old homework! Periodic Table – A system for organizing the elements into columns and rows, so that elements with similar properties are in the same column. •absolute zero: This is the lowest temperature possible. Familiarising yourself with the language used in the chemical sciences can help avoid confusion when reading about topics in medicinal chemistry. Interactions that occur between molecules. Anaphylaxis. An automated method of performing large amounts of. A compound that has not been previously described in the scientific literature. 23. A highly selective permeability barrier that prevents many compounds from reaching the brain. Combustibility – The ability of a substance to catch fire and burn in air. Metal – Typically, an element that is solid at room temperature, shiny, malleable, ductile, and a good conductor; for example, aluminum, iron, and calcium. https://schoolworkhelper.net/general-chemistry-key-terms-definitions/, Titration Lab: NaOH with Standardized solution of KHP, Reaction rate of Hydrochloric Acid and Limestone: Experiment Results, Decomposition of Hydrogen Peroxide Lab Answers, Hydrogen Peroxide Breakdown in Liver vs. An organism’s complete set of genetic information. Element – A pure substance that cannot be broken down into simpler parts by chemical methods; all the elements are listed on the Periodic Table; all of the particles in an element are identical, as shown in the element aluminum. Family – A vertical column of elements in the periodic table also known as a group. 21. Solubility – Describes how much of a substance dissolves in another substance. Drug design techniques employed on lead compounds to improve pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles. A compound is said to be xenobiotic if it is foreign to an organism. It is used to describe the highest concentration, at which a reaction is still measurable. A group of symptoms associated with sudden decrease of or cessation of intake of drugs. This next section of our comprehensive medicinal chemistry glossary will show some (and by no means all) of the names and the structures of functional groups, cyclic aliphatic rings, organoheteroatoms, and heterocycles. A drug or an endogenous ligand that can bind to a receptor and elicit a biological response characteristic of the receptor. To see Science word lists , please go to the home page for word games, interactive worksheets, word puzzles and themed content with Latin roots that align with Common Core Standards. 16. Another word for chemistry. For the equivalent clinical pharmacology glossary, check out the following link: Common Terms in Pharmacology. DFT computational approaches consider that the energy and other properties of a system can be computed from the electron density. Intermolecular interactions between two separate dipoles. 27. In terms of nuclear chemistry, half-life refers to the time taken for a radioisotope to fall to half its original value. Molecule – A type of particle that is made up of two or more atoms bonded together; carbon monoxide is an example of a molecule. Featured Content. The following list explores some of the most common terminology employed in the language of medicinal chemistry. Article last reviewed: 2019 | St. Rosemary Institution © 2010-2020 | Creative Commons 4.0. With enough practice, naming and pointing out the structural features and functional groups of molecules becomes second nature in medicinal chemistry. Electron – A particle of an atom that surrounds the nucleus; has a charge of negative one. . These glossary terms, along with the AP Chemistry outlines and unit notes. Our collection of chemistry terms and definitions cover all areas, including: general chemistry science, organic chemistry, inorganic, biological, physical, environmental and analytical chemistry. Often used as a guide during drug design. 29. A description of the main molecular features necessary for biological activity and their relative positions in space. 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